With Tropical Storm Ian entering the Gulf of Mexico and the projected path bringing storm force winds to the Florida Keys by as early as Monday night, boaters there should be activating their hurricane strategy. If this strategy involves moving to a more protected “hurricane hole” they should plan to be safely secured there at least two days before the arrival of storm force winds in their area. Current projections show Ian becoming a hurricane a landfall somewhere along Florida’s West Coast near Tampa Bay late Wednesday night, but this is subject to change.
Waiting too long can bring conditions that will make it much more difficult to secure the boat. And you want to be sure to allow plenty of time for evacuation, if needed. The storm’s intensity can change as it moves up the Gulf, but current projections show Ian to become a major hurricane by the time it crosses the island of Cuba. Boaters in Florida and the Gulf States should monitor updates on Ian at the National Hurricane website.
Keep in mind that there is no guarantee your boat will survive a hurricane, even in the most protected hurricane hole. In a direct hit, your preparation may only mitigate the damage. It is up to the captain to choose a location that will best avoid a direct hit, and offer good protection should the storm swerve in your direction.
No matter how much protection you have, it is not worth the risk to stay on your boat during a hurricane. I’ve done that— as have many cruisers who’ve survived to tell the tale—but I would not do it again. Ultimately, if you’ve done your homework and preparation, there is not much more you can do when the eye-wall arrives.
The problem with staying aboard, even in an ideal location, is that you will find it hard to resist the urge to go on deck when things really get nasty, and the risk of flying projectiles is very real. Two men who stayed on a power boat during Hurricane Andrew in 1992 were swept overboard. During my own brush with Super Typhoon Paka in Guam, a cruising sailor was seriously injured when he tried to tend to his lines at the height of the storm. Going out in the storm for any reason puts you at much higher risk of getting hurt or killed.
First and foremost, check with your insurance policy to see if anchoring or shore-tying your boat in a hurricane hole will negate coverage. Some policies stipulate that you stay in a marina (a risky option), on a hurricane mooring, or most commonly – haul completely out of the water, a choice which comes with its own unique risks. My own policy is simply a liability policy to cover any damage my boat might cause, so, like many sailors in Florida, my own boat is self-insured. Her survival depends on my preparation. And my hurricane hole.
This article addresses three typical hurricane hole types – storm moorings, creeks and canals where shore-tying is possible, and well-protected waters where you must rely on your own ground tackle. If none of these options appeal to you, see our reports on hurricane storage ashore and preparing for a storm in a marina. This blog focus on selecting a hurricane hole. It does not address the gear, or procedures for securing your boat in the hurricane hole. For that, you can turn to one of our many reports on preparing your sailboat for a tropical storm.
Other Practical Sailor resources include our e-book on Hurricane Preparedness, which cover the topic from every angle, as well as our e-book on Anchors, which includes dozens of anchor tests in various bottoms and specialty ground tackle for storms.
Many islands throughout the world have fields of hurricane moorings in coves or harbors that are nearly surrounded by land or breakwaters to protect against breaking seas. These can provide effective protection, especially in smaller, steep-to islands which are not so susceptible to storm surge. In places like Guam, where Typhoons commonly bring 120 mile-per-hour winds at ground level, the hurricane refuge’s mooring system is a four-point system that allows closely spaced boats, and keeps catamarans from going para-gliding. Other refuges use single-point moorings which allow the boats to weathercock toward the wind.
Although not technically regarded as hurricane moorings, the single-anchor elastic mooring systems (lines, buoy, and anchors) found in Florida and other states are often tested to withstand the winds loads (not waves) of a tropical storm. In September 2017, this strength requirement was throughly tested by Hurricane Irma in Boot Key Harbor in The Florida Keys. Although most of the mooring anchors and downlines held, chafed mooring pendants resulted in the loss of many boats.
There are many downsides to a mooring field. The most worrisome risk is that another boat will break free and bear down on yours. This a big concern in any hurricane hole, but mooring fields that pack boats like sardines increase the chance of this. The images take after Hurricane Irma raked the charter fleet in the British Virgin Islands show how this can end.
To conserve space, some mooring fields limit the length of the mooring pennant, the line you supply between the boat and the mooring. As Practical Sailor’s study on hurricane moorings showed, an extra-long mooring pennant protected from chafe is often a key to survival. Using high-quality, new, or nearly new rope for mooring pennants also increases the odds of survival. If another boat collides with yours– all bets are off no matter how many precautions you took.
The upside of a tested and monitored mooring field is that the equipment has been tested to a published working load limit (WLL). Having a screw-type embedment anchor that has been pull-tested offers confidence in areas of poor holding (rock, grass, soft mud, mud over limestone – etc.) where your own anchors might not hold well. Regardless of how new or reputable the mooring field is, you should carry out a thorough inspection of your own mooring well before the start of hurricane season.
A well-protected creek or canal where you can shore-tie is my preferred type of hurricane hole. Securing the boat with a multiple lines to trees ashore is a usual approach in these areas. You can often add anchors (including ground anchors for ashore) – but the holding is often extremely poor in the creeks or canals.
The advantage of such a location is that you have multiple points to tie into, and if you get pushed onto shore, the mangroves provide a relatively soft landing for your hull. Canals with seawalls do not share this advantage, but a well-fendered boat will have better survival odds.
The disadvantages to this approach are many. Your boat is physically closer to shore and the hard stuff that can hole your boat. Most mangrove areas are routinely inundated by storm surge, reducing much of your protection against the wind and swell. Chafe is an ever-present risk. Some big trees lining canals have weak root systems and are likely to topple.
The canal or creek that is used as a hurricane hole can also increase the risk of a storm surge pile-up. Boats are usually spaced at regular interval along the creek, so if lines part on one of the boats, it can be pushed up or down the creek onto other boats—potentially starting a chain reaction similar to what happens in a mooring field.
Being the first to arrive at a spot well upstream will reduce your vulnerability to this, but it also puts you first inline for downstream debris which can increase the load on your shore-ties.
Another problem in some creeks is that your spider-web of ropes will block traffic up and down the creek, so out of courtesy, you may have to tend your lines, or wait to set them until the approaching storm has put navigation to a stop. On a related note, if there are drawbridges between you and your hurricane hole, operators may stop or limit openings due to high winds and to allow for evacuation by car, so plan accordingly.
If your canal or creek is adjacent to private property, you may be sued for any damage your boat causes. The laws dealing with this are complicated and vary by state, so you’ll want to do your homework. Check with the regulatory agency charged with navigation enforcement in the area, and double-check your insurance policy.
In addition, many of these areas are in protected environmental areas, so, you might also be fined and held liable for environmental harm if you’re found to have neglected your responsibility. Again, if you have any doubts, check with the agency in charge of enforcement in the area. In general, when storms threaten, the law allows individuals take all necessary measures to protect their property, so long as this is not unduly endangering others or their property.
The hurricane strategy of anchoring in a well-protected lagoon, cove creek, or estuary is a common in many areas of the country and in the Caribbean. These hurricane holes have been a savior for cruisers stuck in the hurricane belt during high season. They also yield some of the most dramatic images of post-storm damage. The hurricane holes used for anchoring are very similar to the mooring field option, with the added risk of having your anchor drag. There might be a slightly lower risk of collision from a stray boat – it will depend on the number of boats.
Your success in this type of hurricane hole will rely greatly on how well you and your neighbors set and manage your ground tackle. Some boaters like to make their own “hurricane mooring” using multiple anchors. If it is a river or creek, the influence of floodwaters and strong tides is an added danger. Storm debris can quickly wrap around a rode and dislodge your anchor.
Which type of hurricane hole, if any is best for you? Clearly this will vary by location. You may have very few options within easy reach. Or you might have several. Whatever you choose, the time to start preparing is now, well before hurricane season.
Dedicate some time early this summer to take a dry-run to your chosen spot. Strip the boat and deploy the gear as you would use it. This will give you a clear picture of how much time you need.
Despite the advanced warnings for named storms, there never seems to be enough time to make all the necessary preparations. And once the weather starts to deteriorate, setting storm gear becomes difficult and exhausting – if you can reach the hurricane hole at all.
Your chances of survival will depend greatly on the path of the storm. There is a big difference in a direct impact and a glancing blow. Ideally, you should have two or more spots chosen. This allows you flexibility to stay out of the hurricane’s direct path. Most cruising guides in tropical areas identify popular hurricane refuges, but local sailors often know some off-the-beaten track places where the risk of collision with another boat is lower.
For a complete guide to preparing your boat for a hurricane, where ever you are, Practical Sailor’s new four-volume “Hurricane Preparedness Guide” ebook explores in-depth the gear and best practices for securing your boat in a hurricane hole, on a mooring, or in a marina. Provided detailed explanations of the specialized equipment, and anchoring and mooring techniques proven to keep your boat safe when you have no choice to “weather the storm” in harbor, it deserves a place on every voyaging sailors digital bookshelf.
Everything you say here makes perfect sense and reflects my experience of decades of cruising and living aboard in hurricane prone waters. Yes, I stayed onboard for a class 1+ hurricane. And NO I would not do it again. I also had the total loss of my live aboard cruising boat/home. Note: I lost my beloved boat but not by beloved Wife’s life nor mine! You just don’t mess with class 5! Or any hurricane. The best strategy by far is any way possible, get the heck out of the way! I adopted a strategy in the E Caribbean that worked. Every hurricane season we sailed south to Trinidad. They are south of the hurricane belt. I had friends that would go to well known “hurricane holes”
Like Simpson Bay St Maartin. I was in Trinidad when hurricane Lewis hit St Maartin and surrounding area. Thousands of boats lost and hundreds of lives of sailors many who were never found. The loss of my boat was terrible as I had put years of sweat, blood and money into her. A year later we were fully alive and well to continue our cruising life in another boat. Had we stayed on board, like so many, we would have died and the boat would not have mattered one iota.
Fred Read’s comment is valuable, especially “get the heck out of the way!”. Leading from this, to offer an alternative to yachtsmen (under sail ; I have no idea how to deal with this situation without sails) who have no suitable bolt-hole ; could you add some advice about sailing around the edges ? With modern weather information giving hour-by-hour advice about the storm’s progress towards the boat, would it be possible to wait for the wind to strengthen and start to back northwards (northern hemisphere, it’s the other way round down south of course) ; then use the strengthening wind to sail out to sea, and head south under only a storm headsail/jib ? Plan a route which gives sea-room, particularly if there are surrounding islands or coastlines. Keep the wind broadly astern over the port quarter, and sail around the fringe of the rotating storm by continually heading slightly to port. Be prepared for very large waves, but given a well-prepared and seaworthy boat, with a crew who can adapt to such frightening seas, would it be possible to sail around ‘behind’ the storm and so come back to port, eventually, after it has tracked through ? Of course, there’s the risk that the storm’s direction of travel (I don’t mean the wind direction) could change. Take a spare GPS chart-plotter, plus a spare handheld GPS, and paper charts of the extended region. If you allow your position to be governed by the wind direction (as above) any shift in the storm’s direction of travel should be apparent as your position advances, and navigation allowances made as necessary. To those who enjoy sea-sailing this could be a very rewarding experience, and it removes the boat from most of the threats which you list in your excellent-as-always article. Keep the VHF on channel16 and transmit a position report every half hour, both to inform others and to reduce collision risk (visibility will be low). Unless I’ve overlooked some major stupidity in this suggestion, it’s one which would appeal to me. I should add that it’s probably suitable only for liveaboards, or for those with time to spare and live ashore very near to their boats. I hope this helps someone, but I realise that most boats will have to accept the risks of the best-available mooring and hope that the insurance will pay up !.
In answer to Rob, as a former CG pilot who rescued a delivery crew from a 40ft sailboat during the 1991 Halloween Hurricane (later changed to the Perfect Storm), most modern boats are built well enough to survive a hurricane in the open ocean. In general, the crew isn’t. Severe seasickness, bruises and possible broken bones, dehydration, and significant degradation of your mental capabilities should be expected during the normal 3-4 days of hurricane passage. And in general, CG (or anybody else) rescue during the hurricane isn’t practical – the odds of your boat remaining intact are substantially better than your chances of a successful helicopter hoist – which will have to be done after you jump overboard because the swinging of the masts and rigging make threading the hoist to the deck impossible.
I liken the mental challenge of a hurricane in a sailboat to the more severe “Naked and Afraid” challenges, but with no tap out available if things go really wrong. Some are mentally strong enough, many are not.
Rio Dulce, Guatemala ………. hauled out…………… with me safe in Antigua ahore in my opinion is safest place to be with threatening hurricaine in W Caribbean. Then, I would worry about a earthquake.
Actually, one of the better articles on hurricanes and hurricane holes, made even better by the replies. As a California, now Washington, sailor, I do not know much about hurricane holes, except what I have read over the years.
To me, the biggest missing piece of information is the location of such holes in places where they are needed and to be found. For example, know of no hurricane hole guide to the Carribean let alone any place therein. Ditto mainland Mexico, and the Gulf Coast. Need I mention Florida? My general feeling is the locals know, but letting the information out may increase the danger that results from overcrowding the already overcrowded.
Starting and updating a guide to hurricane holes sounds like a wonderful thing for someone with knowledge to accomplish.
And I forgot to mention the Pacific, or more specifically the west coast of Mexico and central America, as well as the islands all over the place there.
I won’t be the only one hoping that my preparations are adequate. I’m in Largo, Fl in a bay off the ICW. The bay is 11′ deep, about half a mile diameter. 8 other boats well-spaced but some not well tended. I have a 60 lb. anchor on 180′ of 5/16 chain and snubber. I stripped the three booms (Dickerson 36 ketch) and sails and stowed them below. A devout atheist, I try not to pray.